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 This page provides some of the sources of information used to construct other parts of this web site. This information is provided so you can learn more about various issues related to water quality and to identify and recognize the sources we have used. We have relied heavily on published peer-reviewed literature as well, but provide this page and its links primarily for the layperson.

   From the EPA:

Terms used and links to Underground Injection Control Program 

 National Primary Drinking Water Information and Regulations 

Cesspools. Yes, they are still in use today!!:


"National Reconnaissance of Pharmaceuticals, Hormones, and Other Organic Wastewater Contaminants in Streams" Named as One of the Top 100 Science Stories of the Year

Discover Magazine has named the Toxic Substances Hydrology Program's "National Reconnaissance of Pharmaceuticals, Hormones, and Other Organic Wastewater Contaminants in Streams" as one of the 100 top science stories of 2002. The USGS study documented the presence of low levels of many organic wastewater compounds, including prescription and non-prescription drugs, hormones, and other wastewater compounds, in a network of 139 targeted streams across the United States. The study, cited as Discover Magazine's 8th top science story overall, was listed 2nd in the environmental sciences category. The honor was shared with research focusing on anticonvulsants and anticancer drugs in water being conducted by Johns Hopkins Whiting School of Engineering for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

     From the USGS: A recent study by the Toxic Substances Hydrology Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) shows that a broad range of chemicals found in residential, industrial, and agricultural wastewaters commonly occurs in mixtures at low concentrations downstream from areas of intense urbanization and animal production. The chemicals include human and veterinary drugs (including antibiotics), natural and synthetic hormones, detergent metabolites, plasticizers, insecticides, and fire retardants. One or more of these chemicals were found in 80 percent of the streams sampled. Half of the streams contained 7 or more of these chemicals, and about one-third of the streams contained 10 or more of these chemicals. This study is the first national-scale examination of these organic wastewater contaminants in streams and supports the USGS mission to assess the quantity and quality of the Nation's water resources. A more complete analysis of these and other emerging water-quality issues is ongoing.


This link is a must read, and won’t take more than about 10 minutes:


From the Lumpkin County Web Site:

Long before the Georgia Gold Rush both white men and Indians knew of the existence of the precious material in the mountains of present day Lumpkin County. Spanish miners visited the area on a number of occasions before they were completely expelled in the 1730's by white English settlers who cut off their supply route from Florida.

Sometime before 1830 gold was discovered in Lumpkin County, although mining of gold in White County was already under way. ...

In the 1880's interest in Lumpkin County revived briefly as a second, albeit smaller Gold Rush brought a few hardy souls back into the area. By 1900 this had "panned out" and once again the county watched an exodus of men to richer mines in Montana and Alaska. Dredging operations were popular until 1920 in Lumpkin and Dawson counties.

EPA: Chemical Compounds Reference Site

Toxics Release Inventory System (TRIS)

TRIS contains information from facilities on the amounts of over 300 listed toxic chemicals that these facilities release directly to air, water, land, or that are transported off-site.

Additional sources of information:

bulletTRI Overview

Underground Injection Code (UIC)

The UIC Program works with state and local governments to regulate injection wells in order to prevent them from contaminating drinking water resources. EPA defines the five classes of wells according to the type of waste they inject and where the waste is injected.

National Toxics Inventory (NTI)

Hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions data are available for 1993 and 1996 in the National Toxics Inventory (NTI) database. For more details on NTI, go to the National Toxics Inventory page.

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo)

RCRAInfo is a national information system that supports the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) program through the tracking of events and activities related to facilities that generate, transport, and treat, store, or dispose of hazardous waste. RCRAInfo allows RCRA program staff to track the notification, permit, compliance, and corrective action activities required under RCRA.

Additional sources of information:

bulletRCRAInfo Overview
bulletOffice of Solid Waste and Emergency Response

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS)

CERCLIS is the Superfund database that is used to support management in all phases of the Superfund program. The system contains information on all aspects of hazardous waste sites, including an inventory of sites, planned and actual site activities, and financial information.

Additional sources of information:

bulletCERCLIS Overview
bulletSuperfund Information

The Permit Compliance System

The Permit Compliance System (PCS) provides information on companies which have been issued permits to discharge waste water into rivers. You can review information on when a permit was issued and expires, how much the company is permitted to discharge, and the actual monitoring data showing what the company has discharged. The Water Discharge Permits Query allows you to retrieve preselected data from the PCS database in Envirofacts. You can narrow your search by selecting various options including facility name, geographic location, standard industrial classification, and chemicals. You may also use the PCS Customized Query to retrieve data and design a query for your particular needs, using any data element available from the Envirofacts Warehouse. Customized Queries are primarily geared toward more experienced users. There is also information on related laws and regulations.

For the technical user there is a graphic model of the PCS database and table and column information

Safe Drinking Water Information System (Water System) (SDWIS[WS])

SDWIS Water Systems can have one or more water system facilities. The water system will purchase water from several facilities. Drinking water information is stored in EPA's SDWIS, which contains information about public water systems and their violations of EPA's regulations for safe drinking water. These statutes and accompanying regulations establish maximum contaminant levels (MCL), treatment techniques, and monitoring and reporting requirements to ensure that water provided to customers is safe for human consumption.

bulletSDWIS(WS) Overview

More from the EPA:

Following is a partial list of some of our sources of information. Please note that this is NOT a complete list.

 United States Environmental Protection Agency USEPA

Georgia Environmental Protection Division EPD

United States Geological Survey

National Institutes of Health (NIH)

United States Department of Agriculture

Centers for Disease Control, (CDC) Atlanta



Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Journal of the American Medical Association

Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division

California Department of Toxic Substances Control

California Environmental Protection Agency

Virginia Department of Environmental Quality

Virginia Soil and Water Conservation District

Natural Resource Conservation Service

Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation

The Federal Register

National Science Foundation

United States Department of Energy

Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program

The Society for Engineering in Agriculture, Food, and Biological Systems


National Association for the Advancement of Science

American Society for Microbiology

And other University Researchers and Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals

White County News Telegraph

Other newspapers ….. for local information

Consumer Reports Research Articles

Office of Science and Technology Publications

EPA Office of Water

National Technical Information Services (NTIS)

City of Gainesville Public Utilities Department Water Quality Report 2002

White County Water Authority Water Quality Report

The Code of Federal Regulations

The Safe Drinking Water Act

United States Office of Science and Technical Publications

United States Department of Health and Human Services

United States Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition

United States Geological Survey

The Gold Book, Quality Criteria For Water 1986

Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater

University of Georgia

The Merck Manual


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Last modified by Dr. Eberhard Essich 03/22/17